Daniel G. Andújar, the artist as a thinker and augur of what happens

Daniel García Andújar is prescient: since the very early days of the Internet, he has been able to anticipate the effects of technological progress and new communication strategies, the ways they reshape social and power relations, and how those can become fundamentally unequal. This essay examines the ways in which Andújar has deployed subversive, appropriationist tactics and strategies, both before and following the advent of the Internet, to slyly point out the inequalities of the Internet age.

Investigation by José Luis Martínez Meseguer


Daniel García Andújar (b. 1966 in Almoradí, Alicante, Spain) is a multimedia artist with a long career outside the official system. He did not complete artistic or academic studies; instead, he educated himself, piece by piece, step by step, forging a career with its own path, in the manner of Antonio Machado or Constantine P. Kavafis. To Andújar the most important thing is the journey, the path, the participation, the learned, the lived.

He is an artist of experimental and experiential projects, rather than artworks. His projects question, through irony and the use of communication technologies, the democratic and egalitarian promises of new media. Starting from the observation that new communication technologies have transformed and continue to shape our daily experience, Andújar criticizes the will to control dissimulated behind their apparent transparency. He often reviews and updates works in progress, adding onto open-ended projects. His use of irony and humor connect and unite him with many artists I deeply admire, whose works are loaded with such sarcasm and parody, combining art and activism: Banksy, Maurizio Cattelan, Joan Fontcuberta, Jeff Koons, Vic Muniz, Antoni Muntadas, Martin Parr, Andy Warhol, and Ai Weiwei.

The concept of “project” more aptly describes Andújar’s approach than “artwork” or “piece,” more customarily used throughout twentieth-century art. His current artistic practice has more to do with thought, with the idea, than with the art object or product. In the late 1980s, his first notable projects combined action and video art, hence his appearances in many of the alternative festivals that promote both disciplines. This merging of mediums is innate to him, it is his own: unlike most of his contemporaries, more concerned with the market, with sales, with the “placeable” object, he goes beyond the bourgeois, decorative artistic object. His projects need new media, because his themes are also new.

As a matter of conviction, given his stance towards the saprophytic art market, his is the kind of artistic practice that arises from residences, exchanges, competitions, and commissions—at the edge of the market—as a new way of relating to the art world of the twenty-first century. At the anecdotal level, it is curious that some important collectors desire to acquire his work for their collections. His work is often conceptual to such a degree that it cannot be understood as a traditional work, nor can it be shown off to rivals—a very common ambition among collectors. Andújar’s works may be simple, humble, but they possess a powerful, vindicating, emotional, or historical charge.

Echastri 14 Le sersené sinelan timune angla la liri, bi so shitisarele Daniel G. Andújar (1994) Dikipén o de las imágenes construidas
Daniel G. Andújar (1994) Dikipén o de las imágenes construidas (Dikipen or of the constructed images). Courtesy of the artist

This article tries to analyze certain of his projects, those that I consider fundamental milestones of his artistic approach, that, in some way, have launched or shaped his career. When dating his projects, I usually use the date on which they were first made or published. It is his custom to add to, improve, specify, his artworks: they are site-specific, made intentionally for the place in which they take place. Different versions of his projects exist, since with each iteration he relies on a different display or device, suitable for each occasion and context. He adapts each iteration of each project to the public to whom it is addressed.

Analogue Andújar: Pre-Internet works

Dikipén (o de las imágenes construidas) (Dikipen [or of the constructed images], 1994) is one of Andújar’s first projects that I want to highlight. It has a precedent in an action from 1992, in which the artist distributed or placed stickers, the size of a business card, in public spaces. Printed on these stickers, in Spanish and in Romani (or, to be more precise, Caló, the variant dialect of Romani in Spain, the South of France, and Portugal), was Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution, which guarantees equal rights and freedom from discriminatio.

One component of this project consisted in compiling articles and newspaper clippings in which the term “gypsy” was used—always contemptuously—and replacing it with “citizen.” Many times, in this documentation, the news or information lost its meaning, since the (negative) charge, the connotation, the image of the term, was suggested rather than stated; but it remained in the subconscious. Andújar spoke to us here about images: he pointed out that all images are constructed around strategies—otherness, categorization, differentiation, stereotype, hierarchy, representation, meaning, subjectivity, etc.—meaning that every image is not true in itself, but is provisional, relative.

In Spain, this pejorative image of the Gypsy ethnic group I believe has its first written documentation, or at least its most known and widely disseminated, in King Carlos III’s Pragmatic Sanction of Naples1, which led to a popular saying, “Ni gitanos ni murcianos ni gentes de mal vivir” (Neither Gypsies nor Murcians nor other bad people”). Here, the term “Murcian,” with which many jokes have been made, instead of referring to the population of the Murcia region of southeastern Spain, actually refers to the action murciar, a term in disuse, meaning to steal. Thus, the term “gypsy” was associated in turn with two negative and racist concepts, in fact aporophobic (fearful of poverty) rather than xenophobic.

Dikipén means vision, sight. The artist plays here with several meanings of the action, or fact, of seeing: the ability to see, perceive with the eyes, as well as their lack or non-perception. It also refers to immediate and direct contemplation without sensible perception, and to the particular point of view on a subject or issue. To the object of sight, especially when it is ridiculous or frightening. And especially to the creation of fantasy or imagination, which has no reality and is taken as true. To the construction of an image or a stereotype about something. It is also about making visible, a term now very much in vogue, but which thirty years ago was more a matter of strong positioning and the political convictions of citizens, in the Aristotelian sense of zoon politikón2. This attitude of active citizenship will be present in each and every one of Andújar’s projects.

By referring to equality, Andújar is actually relating to inequality, another concept of reference in his work, which in the optimistic ‘80s was not taken into account as it is now, when differences are greater and many artists have jumped on the bandwagon of reusable and postmodern labels. He is also talking about minorities—marginalized by statesmen and politicians and by the market. It is a Hegelian idea that, for the good of the state, of the majority, everything was justified and should be done, including the massacre of minorities, always at a disadvantage.

Andújar takes advantage of this idea, and this is another of the characteristics of his work: the interstice, the cleft, the space, the gap, the void (legal, no.legal or illegal) that mediates or exists between something, between the topics he deals with, that worry him. This comes from a thorough analysis, a profuse documentation, an investigation before which, chapeau! I take my hat off. This can be seen in his courses and workshops, talks and conferences. To his loquacity is added the interest of what he transmits. Above all, we observe how he grasps his subject from a variety of different perspectives. This also comes from his training: though self-taught, he has always followed his questions to their sources, connecting with whoever generated the matters that interest him, and working collaboratively, hand in hand with them. The best of educations.

Technologies To The People (2003) Sistema Operativo X-Devian
Technologies To The People (2003) Sistema Operativo X-Devian (Operating System X-Devian). Courtesy of the artist

There is a work of which I personally—and not only as a collector of postcards myself—am very proud. I refer to the potential of small objects or chores. It is a small action, Ehrendekmal für Emigranten (Honorary Monument for Emigrants, 1997), undertaken during his residency in Dortmund, while working on the Wir beobachten! project (We observe!, 1997) for the Künstlerhaus. It dealt with a subversion. With industrialization, the city of Dortmund became one of the most important centers for the production of coal, steel, and beer in Germany. One of the city’s most significant monuments, of which Dortmund’s inhabitants are very proud, is a monument to the industrialization of Germany, to its might. It depicts a boy holding a coin, a German mark, as an example of the efforts made by the German people. Andújar created a postcard, imitating the style of those found in tourist souvenir shops, in which he replaced this statue with an Honorary Monument to Emigrants of his own design. In so doing, he depicts the immigrant labor that really made this “German miracle” possible. When we met, around that time, he told me how, each day, as he made his way from from his home to his workplace, he replaced real commercial postcards in tourist shops with his own ingenious intervention. Appropriation of this kind, this reuse of elements to change their meaning, is a device often used in modern art. A subversion of signifiers, to highlight an idea. Otherness understood as a civic and empathetic attitude.

Andújar wants to combat the passivity of the spectator. In a motto borrowed from Antoni Muntadas: Perception requires participation. We find the same concept in Joan Fontcuberta, on photography. Like them, Andújar urges the public to actively observe the artist’s product, to avoid being deceived. It may be a trick, a gimic, a “trompe l’oeil” that art has always used. Pay attention.

Andújar online

All the projects mentioned so far took place before the advent of the Internet, before the network became what it is today—before what has become known as the Third Industrial Revolution. The Andújar that we now celebrate began his journey, his contemporary artistic practice, with www.irational.org (1996), an international association of artists, of which he is a founding member, who collaborated on this website and shared an Internet server, back in the prehistory of the Internet, when the service was much more expensive, as all new technology is at its beginnings. The group is an international reference for net.art, or art on the net, formed by British artists Rachel Baker and Heath Bunting, Mexican artist Minerva Cuevas, and Andújar himself. This group was formed as a parody of avant-garde movements, mainly writers such as Tilman Baumgärtel, Josephine Bosma, Hans Dieter Huber, and Pit Schultz. Members’ individual works have little in common, but the portal served as a platform in the literal sense and as a launching pad for its component members.

Working anonimously under the umbrella of the (fictitious) foundation of the same name, their best-known project is Technologies To The People [TTTP]® (1996). Above all, the group was concerned that technology was not going to reach the most disadvantaged populations and thus increase existing inequalities. Its members want to make us aware of the reality that surrounds us and the delusion inherent in the promises of free choice—promises that become, inevitably, new forms of control and inequality.

Daniel G. Andújar (2006) Postcapital
Daniel G. Andújar (2006) Postcapital Archive (1989-2001). Courtesy of the artist

In this context, a significant work, let’s call it a performance, took place: iSAM™ (1997). Andujar was aware, from a very early stage, of the socio-economic differences that technology would generate. That is why he decided to promote, through an advertising campaign in the press and brochures, a machine he called iSAM™—never actually created, except digitally and in the mind of our artist—that was supposed to help members of society with the least advantages—the indigent, the homeless—access the economy, at a time when it changed from the gold standard to the plastic standard and the increasing use of the credit card was going to leave out a significant sector of the population. Tellingly, American companies in Silicon Valley contacted the creator to obtain the (non-existent) patent for the (imaginary) gadget. Because, yes, this campaign, in its strictest seriousness and rigor, using its own and appropriated means of advertising, knew how to reach the public.

Emblematic (also simulated) TTTP Collections were created under the banner of the fictitious foundation, part of its heritage and economic power: the TTTP Photo Collection (1997), TTTP Video Collection (1998), TTTP Classic Net.art Collection (1999). I find these collections very interesting because, being objective, they also play with their own concepts and ideas, such as top ten lists, the commercialization of art, copyrights, authorship, the concept of museum or of art being worthy of museum, the concept of the masterpiece. The video collection is a collaborative work with the scholar Eugeni Bonet, an expert in video and moving image art, in which Andujar and Bonet establish a list of what they considered, at that specific moment, the best one hundred works of video art. The Classic Net.art Collection is already pure rhetoric, metaphor, hyperbole—how can you own something nonphysical, something that does not exist, that does not have physicality? Andújar resolves this paradox by printing on canvas the homepage of Classic Net.art Collection, which he frames with baroque moldings that give it a seriousness that the concept itself subverts. Calling “Classic” something that was emerging emphasizes that fine irony that underlies his works.

This last series reminds me of the Net Space in the 2000 edition of ARCO, the emblematic Madrid fair, directed at the time by Rosina Gómez Baeza, a real coolhunter or trendsetter, before those terms acquired the commonplace ring they have today. The director understood that a space in the fair should be dedicated to net.art, even though the genre was only just incipient, and despite the constant network problems at the venue. I bring this up because collecting, in the traditional, classic, objective sense, understood that this art could not be a symptom of any prestige. It did not understand virtuality, something now almost more valued than the real thing, and almost more effective.

Then came another period, prior to the emergence of social networks, of collective citizen platforms on websites: e-arco.org, e-barcelona.org, e-dortmund.org, e-madrid.org, e-manifesta.org, e-norte.org, e-sevilla.org, e-seoul.org, e-sttutgart.org, e-toulouse.org, e-valencia.org, among others, in which contributors analyzed the behavior of the art market in these cities, how the power mechanisms worked. Forums of dissent, e-valencia.org was closed by a judge because of a complaint against it by the former director of IVAM—who has now been implicated in a criminal plot, part of which was exposed and denounced on e-valencia.org.

Daniel G. Andújar (2011) Democraticemos la democracia (Democratise democracy)
Daniel G. Andújar (2011) Democraticemos la democracia (Democratise democracy). Courtesy of the artist

After the fall of the Berlin Wall, while everyone thought it represented the end of communism, Andújar—a sharp observer—proposed another concept, a whole framework of thought and reflection on immediate contemporaneity, in his work Postcapital Archive (1989-2001) (2006). He explains that the disappearance of communism will actually produce a new capitalism, new ways, new modes of acting. The thing that we are already suffering in our own flesh.

He works here on a concept very dear to him and recurrent in his work: the archive. In reality, the Internet, the web, is an immense archive in which to surf, investigate, and discover. With its own organization, rules, and protocols. He has even worked on the dark web, the network from which it is possible to hire people to commit crimes or traffic drugs. The body has been another of the topics which he returns to, in some projects for TTTP, looking to genetic pre-design (about two hundred pathologies can be prevented). In the most recent TTTP works, presented at documenta14 (2017), he examined the appropriations of our DNA by leisure and consumer companies.

Democraticemos la democracia (Democratise democracy, 2011), one of his latest projects, began on the coasts of Alicante. It took place on one precise day, May 1, International Workers’ Day. He performed his second action in Barcelona, a few days before the celebration of the “Spanish Revolution,” on May 15, which gives it a special symbolism. We have already seen examples of Andújar’s concern in exercising citizenship. Here he uses a device very specific of the Spanish summer: the small planes that fly over the crowded beaches of the coast advertising a wide range of products. In this case, a showy banner with a yellow background and black lettering (mimicking a defined corporate image) bearing the political motto: “Let’s democratize democracy.” Unusual. Different. Rare. It must have surprised those who saw it. This work has been done in countless places with different types of governments, translated into different languages, yet the context and the concept have worked perfectly. (Except in the Western Sahara, where the Polisario Front camp refused the performance, since Polisario doesn’t like to see their color yellow adopted by other causes.)

Andújar is an interesting reflection of what goes on in the world, from an artistic point of view. Contemporaneity in motion, as a process. Alive. Pure art.

NB: As author and translator of the text, I wish to thank Madeleine Compagnon, Alejandro Fortuño Salanguera, Murray Molloy, and Daniella Zlotoura for their kindly revisions to my English text.

Editor: Vincent Simon
Cover: The artist interviewed during the exhibition Daniel G. Andújar Operating System, January 21 – May 4, 2015, MNCARS Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. Courtesy of the artist

Read more →

Daniel G. Andújar’s Vision for the Future of Work

The artist’s new works at La Virreina, Barcelona, predict that the culture industry will never be automated

BY Max Andrews

Frieze magazine 5 Aug 2020

Main image: Daniel G. Andújar, Pyramid of Capitalism, 2019, oil on canvas, 1.9 × 1.6 m. Courtesy: the artist and Àngels Barcelona

In 1996, Daniel G. Andújar, an early proponent of net art, founded Technologies To The People: a mock corporation that marketed advanced technology to the underprivileged while spoofing the visual tics and ersatz transparency of digital brands. Largely focusing on projects from the last five years, the artist’s current exhibition at La Virreina Centre de la Imatge reveals that this double-edged concern with class hierarchies and utopian promises is still relevant today. Titled ‘The Third Estate’ – in reference to the medieval European term for common people – the show conflates past ideological struggles with the present and future of work, collective culture and propaganda.

In the first gallery, the phrase ‘this is not a worker’ has been written on the wall by a robotic plotter. Futurologists have predicted that almost half the jobs in high-wage economies are at risk of being replaced by automation and artificial intelligence within the next 20 years. Robot Scribit (2020) seems to ask – with reference to René Magritte’s The Treachery of Images (1929) – whether our anxiety about the future relates less to new technology per se than to our search for someone to blame for this very sense of foreboding. Karl Marx looms large: The Communist Manifesto (2019) is a disconcerting video simulation of the philosopher’s head as he reads his revolutionary 1848 analysis of capitalist modes of production like a silken-voiced, radical-policymaking Alexa.

Read more →

Daniel García Andújar. Documenta 14

Documenta 14

Daniel García Andújar
(b. 1966, Almoradi, Spain)

Daniel García Andújar
(geb. 1966, Almoradi, Spanien)
The Disasters of War – Trojan Horse (2017)
Installation mit verschiedenen Materialien
Maße variabel

The Disasters of War, Metics Akademia (2017)

Mixed-media installation
Dimensions variable
EMST—National Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens

The Disasters of War/Trojan Horse (2017)
Mixed-media installation
Dimensions variable
Neue Neue Galerie (Neue Hauptpost), Kassel

Burning the Canon
Nordstadt Park Kassel
June 23
Nordstadt Park
23rd June, 2017
From 20:00 (burning 23h aprox.)

The Trojan Horse sculpture has been conceived as anti-monument reflecting on the “night games of war” (Reichs Veterans Day, Kassel, June 4 1939) developed in Germany during the Nazi period. The sculpture has been created by the artist with the aid of a software working with an aleatory combination of body types and then materially constructed by Taller Manolo Martín, a team of traditional craftsmen who produce Valencia’s Fallas puppets in Spain to be burned. Following this ritual, the sculpture will also be burn during the night of Saint John (also known as Jani, Adonia, Midsommar, Ivan Kupala Day, Juhannus Mittumari, etc.) as part of a pagan celebration aimed at letting go of what is no longer needed and saving what has to remain.

Open Fire Party with:
Daniel G. Andújar
Manolo Martín
Crier/performance by Daniel Cremer based in a text from María Dolores Jiménez-Blanco (Burn the canon?)
Dolçaines by Cristina Martí Morell & Francesc Xavier Richart Peris
Percussion by Pablo Lluis Llorca
Pyrotechnics and fire by Fire, Ice and Magic
Production by Carlota Gómez & Jorgina Stamogianni
Curated by Paul B. Preciado

The Disasters of War/Trojan Horse (2017)
The Disasters of the War, Trojan Horse is a series of 82 “artifacts” constituting the second part of a project that started in Athens. The project itself travels hidden inside of a Trojan horse. These series evoke 82 engravings created by Spanish painter Francisco Goya (1746-1828) between 1810 and 1820 secretly criticizing the violence deployed against the population during the wars between the Napoleonian Empire and Spain. Bringing Goya to the 3-D printer era, the project reflects on the politics of war, but also on the way war can continue through means of economic, cultural, and visual domination. Many wars are thus narrated here, in an attempt to resist its many forms of violence and explore strategies of visual and performative resistance. The project unfolds in different formats: an installation, a workshop, a performance, and a public action.

Read more →

Opening of the first public venue and the Public Programs of documenta 14


September 14­–24, 2016 at Parko Eleftherias
Athens Municipality Arts Center

You are invited to be part of the Parliament of Bodies documenta 14 public program, hosted in the Athens Municipality Arts Center at Parko Eleftherias in September 2016. What will happen here during ten days of programming is neither a conference nor an exhibition.

We have avoided conventional museological names that establish distinctions between talk and performance, theory and action, criticism and art. Instead, we invited forty-five participants to “exercise freedom” within the building, which, not long ago, served as the headquarters of the military police during the dictatorship years. We understand freedom, with Foucault, as neither an individual property nor a natural right, but rather as a practice. We drift in history. There is a space. There are some bodies. There are some voices. But what does it mean to be together, here, now? What can be done? Who and what are made visible? Whose voices can be heard and which remain silent? How can the public sphere be reorganized?

In the Parliament of Bodies, you will find neither individual chairs within the building nor a fixed architecture. We avoid positioning the audience as aesthetic visitors or neoliberal consumers. We also reject the democratic fiction of the semicircular amphitheater. We claim—with Oskar Hansen—the political potential of the “open form.” Andreas Angelidakis’s soft architecture consisting of sixty-eight blocks of ruins (the ruins of a democratic parliament?) can be assembled and re-arranged in endless ways, creating multiple and transient architectures for the Parliament of Bodies. You are invited to actively construct this political theater every day, interrogating location, hierarchy, visibility, scale…

The 34 Exercises of Freedom aim to write a queer anticolonial symphony of Europe from the 1960s, scripting dialogue and giving visibility to dissident, heterogeneous, and minor narratives. We start by bringing together the radical left tradition with the anti-colonial fight for sovereignty of indigenous movements within Europe. The voice of Antonio Negri­­—one of the founders of the Potere Operaio (Workers’ Power) group in 1969 and member of Autonomia Operaia in Italy—meets the voice of Niillas Somby—the political rights activist fighting for Sámi sovereignty in the north of Norway. Both were accused of different forms of terrorism during the 1970s.

Sidestepping the established opposition of dictatorship and democracy, we try to understand the failures of transitioning to democracy within neoliberal regimes, not only in the case of Greece but also in Spain, Argentina, or Chile: how freedom was misunderstood as the free market. Whereas the 1980s are often portrayed as a time of decline for social emancipation movements, one that heralded the arrival of a new democratic consensus within capitalism—replacing ideological opposition with economic growth—anticolonial, feminist, queer, and anti-AIDS fights started to point out the cracks within western hegemonic discourse. Might it be possible to think the Greek notion of eleftheria (freedom) against the capitalist notion of freedom? Progressively during this ten-day dialogue we aim to introduce contemporary languages of resistance, from the Kurdish revolution in Rojava to the queer, transgender, sex-workers’, and migrant voices in Turkey, Greece, Mexico, or Brazil, from contemporary indigenous fights for restitution to new political and artistic practices dedicated to invent new forms of affect, knowledge, and political subjectivity, such as ecosex, queer-indigenism, and radical performativity. Together they draw a different political and poetic map of Europe than the one designed by the European Union.

Adespotes Skiles, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts), Andreas Angelidakis, Anna Apostolelli, Contemporary Social History Archives (ASKI), Hawzhin Azeez, Angela Brouskou, Rüzgâr Buşki, Clémentine Deliss, Linnea Dick, Maria F. Dolores, Theatro Domatiou, Bonita Ely, Panayotis Evangelidis, Daniel García Andújar, Macarena Gómez-Barris, Stathis Gourgouris, Irena Haiduk, Jack Halberstam, Candice Hopkins, Regina José Galindo, Chief Robert Joseph, Nelli Kampouri, Vangelis Karamanolakis, Kostis Karpozilos, Kostis Kornetis, Sevval Kılıç, Katerina Labrinou, Quinn Latimer, Prasini Lesvia, Ana Longoni, MiniMaximum ImproVision, Naeem Mohaiemen, Antonio Negri, Gizem Oruç, Neni Panourgía, Anna Papaeti, Jørgen Flindt Pedersen, Paul B. Preciado, Judith Revel, Tasos Sakellaropoulos, Georgia Sagri, Niillas Somby, Annie Sprinkle and Beth Stephens, Erik Stephensen, Adam Szymczyk, Diana Taylor, Prodromos Tsinikoris, Margarita Tsomou, Eirini Vakalopoulou, Ioanna Vogli, Tina Voreadi, Pantelis Voulgaris, and Sergio Zevallos



DEMOS is a space that materially and formally references two extremes of a spectrum that have been constitutive for the construction of Athens. On the one end of the spectrum are the ancient stone steps on the hill Pnyx, a modular typology and meeting place that can be said to have initiated the formation of democracy. On the other end you might find the modernist reinforced concrete frame, an architectural module used to democratize the way Athens was built. The steps on the Pnyx, along with most ancient Greek architecture, were borrowed by the world to form a global typology of spaces of authority such as parliaments, libraries, and courthouses. The reinforced concrete frame, which Greece borrowed from a modernized Europe, represents the anarchic, unauthorized construction that grew to define the Athens we witness today.

While the building inhabited by documenta 14 housed the military police headquarters during the reign of the junta, the building behind it was used as a detention and torture facility. Currently it houses the Museum of Anti-dictatorial and Democratic Resistance, which is operated by the Association of Imprisoned and Exiled Resistance Fighters (1967–1974). The building allocated to documenta 14 has been used in recent years as an art venue and public gallery run by the Municipality of Athens. The building is treated as a historical artifact: as the site where democracy reached its lowest point in contemporary Greek history. As the DEMOS modules, inhabited by the Parliament of Bodies, negotiate the parameters of the Public Programs, the building launches into an investigative renovation of its own history. The practical demands of the program, such as the sourcing of natural light and technical repairs to the building, become part of an archaeological process, as the layers of exhibition architecture are peeled away to uncover past identities of the space.

DEMOS creates a space as a programmable device with which to negotiate the relation between stage and audience, between performer and participant, between democracy and freedom. Each variation will be a demo for the Parliament of Bodies. Each demo will be “demolished” to make way for the next DEMOS. As the Public Program of d14 unfolds over time, the modules gradually form a language, each variation of the space a new definition of demos (Δήμος).

—Andreas Angelidakis



Program, September 14–24, 2016


Wednesday September 14 (7–11 pm)

Introduction by

Adam Szymczyk, artistic director, documenta14
Paul B. Preciado, curator of Public Programs, documenta 14
Andreas Angelidakis, architect/artist



#1. Chief Robert Joseph, hereditary chief of the Gwawaenuk First Nation, ambassador for Reconciliation Canada, and a member of the Assembly of First Nations Elders Council, and Linnea Dick, writer, painter, and ceremonialist of Kawakwaka’wakw, Nisga’a and Tsimshian heritage

#2. Antonio Negri, political theorist and philosopher

#3. Niillas Somby, Sámi political rights activist, journalist, videographer, and photographer

#4. Educación cívica / Civic Education

Sergio Zevallos, artist


Thursday September 15 (7–11 pm)



#5. Freedom as Market Value. Freedom as Practice of Resistance
Judith Revel, philosophy professor, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense and member of the scientific committee of the Centre Michel Foucault

#6. Memory under Construction: Towards a Public Memory of Torture in Greece
Kostis Kornetis, UC3M CONEX-Marie Curie Fellow at the Department of History, Carlos III University, Madrid

#7. Your Neighbor’s Son: The Making of a Torturer, Jørgen Flindt Pedersen and Erik Stephensen, Denmark, 1981, 52 min
Film screening

#8. Soundscapes of Detention: Music and Torture under the Junta (1967–74)
Anna Papaeti, independent researcher and musicologist

#9. Between Terror and Revelry. Collective Strategies of Resistance during Dictatorships in Argentina and Brazil
Ana Longoni, writer, curator, and professor of Art History, Universidad de Buenos Aires

#10. DJ set
Lies van Born, DJ


Friday September 16 (5:45–11 pm)


#11. Torture and Freedom Tour of Athens
(5:45–8:45 pm)
Collective walk through the city of Athens exploring the historical traces of oppression, violence, and the quest for freedom during the military dictatorship of 1967–74

Tour in Greek
Starting point: 5:45 pm at Polytechnion by the Tositsa Street entrance
Ending point: Parko Eleftherias
Τhe Greek tour is conducted by Vangelis Karamanolakis (historian, University of Athens) and Tasos Sakellaropoulos (historian, head of the Historical Archives, Benaki Museum, Athens)

Tour in English
Starting point: 6:15 pm at Polytechnion by the Tositsa Street entrance
Ending point: Parko Eleftherias
The English tour is conducted by Kostis Karpozilos (historian, director of the Contemporary Social History Archives–ASKI, Athens) and Katerina Labrinou (historian, Panteion University, Athens)

Meanwhile at the Athens Municipality Art Center, Parko Eleftherias:

#12. The Chronicle of the Dictatorship (1967–74), Pantelis Voulgaris, Greece, 37 min
Film screening

Εpitaph for Democracy
(9:30–11 pm)

#13. Epitafios II
Angela Brouskou – Theatro Domatiou, theater group and MiniMaximum ImproVision, improvisational group of musicians


Saturday September 17 (7 pm)–Sunday, September 18 (10 pm)



#14. Ojo de gusano: Don’t Look Down
Regina José Galindo, artist

#15. Chronotopes / Dystopic Geometries / Terrifying Geographies
Neni Panourgia, anthropologist, visiting associate professor of Anthropology at the New School for Social Research, New York

#16. Lingua Tertii Imperii
Daniel García Andújar, artist

#17. Red Star, Crescent Moon / after Sohail Daulatzai
Naeem Mohaiemen, artist

#18. This is not the Place. Four Visits to Villa Grimaldi: A Chilean Center for Torture and Detention 
Diana Taylor, professor of Performance Studies and Spanish at New York University

#19. Attempt. Come
Georgia Sagri, artist

Note: Visitors can bring along sleeping bags, comfortable clothes, food, and water and may stay in the space for the twenty-four-hour duration of the piece. Smoking is not permitted. A public discussion with Georgia Sagri will follow the completion of the performance on Sunday night.


Tuesday September 20 (7–11 pm)

South as a State of Mind #7 [documenta 14 #2]


#20. Transgressive Listening
Stathis Gourgouris, professor at the Institute for Comparative Literature and Society at Columbia University, New York

#21. Outlawed Social Life
Candice Hopkins, citizen of Carcross/Tagish First Nation, is an independent curator, writer, and curatorial advisor for documenta 14 based in Albuquerque, New Mexico

#22. I Owe You Everything
Clémentine Deliss, writer and curator, currently curating the Dilijan Art Initiative in Armenia. First act of giving in the series I Owe You Everything, in the presence of Chief Robert Joseph and Linnea Dick

I Owe You Everything is a project that chooses and follows a series of contemporary thinkers, poets, and activists who are invited to construct a public “act of giving,” a critical and poetic ritual, in which they give “everything” to the Parliament of Bodies of documenta 14. The acts of giving explore different cultural and political economies such as debt, gift, potlatch, revenge, retribution, promise…


Wednesday September 21 (5–7 pm)



#23. Interior Effects as an Outcome of War
Workshop with Bonita Ely, artist

You are invited to join artist Bonita Ely in a workshop to discuss the ongoing, inter-generational effects of undiagnosed, untreated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffered by family members of returned soldiers. During the workshop, Ely shares her family’s experiences following her father’s return home after the Second World War. The artist has made these often tragic effects of undiagnosed PTSD the focus of her artistic work. Open to up to 20 participants, register at: program@documenta.de.


Thursday September 22 (7–10 pm)


#24. They Glow in the Dark, Panayotis Evangelidis, Greece, 2013, 69 min,
Film screening and discussion with director Panayotis Evangelidis


Friday September 23 (7–11 pm)


#25. An Evening with Annie Sprinkle and Beth Stephens and Wet Dreams Water Ritual
Annie Sprinkle, activist, artist, and educator and Beth Stephens, ecosexual performance artist, filmmaker, activist, educator, founding director of the E.A.R.T.H. Lab and professor of Art, University of California, Santa Cruz. Together they authored the Ecosex Manifesto.

Note: Please bring some water from your home or town/city for the water ritual. Wear the colors of water; aqua, blue, and black. Be costumed, naked, painted, adorned, or as you like.

#26. The Waltz of the Dirty Streets
Adespotes Skiles, self-organized music and theater collective


Saturday September 24 (7–11 pm)


Organized in collaboration with AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)

#27. Decolonizing Memory: Vita Futurities in the Americas
Macarena Gómez-Barris, chair of the Department of Social Science and Cultural Studies at Pratt Institute, New York

#28. Rojava’s Feminist Revolution
Hawzhin Azeez, political theorist and activist, Kurd from south Kurdistan (northern Iraq)

#29. Trans*: Bodies and Power in the Age of Transgenderism
Jack Halberstam, visiting professor of English and Comparative Literature and Gender Studies at Columbia University, New York

#30. #Direnayol (#Resistayol), documentary by Rüzgâr Buşki, Turkey, 2016, 60 min
Film premiere

#31.Voices of Trans and Queer Politics in the Mediterranean with:
Rüzgâr Buşki, multimedia artist and producer, member of Kanka Productions
Gizem Oruç, musician, producer, and multimedia artist, member of Kanka Productions
Şevval Kılıç, sex worker, queer and trans activist working in Istanbul
Nelli Kampouri, gender scholar, Centre for Gender Studies, Panteion University Athens
Margarita Tsomou, author, publisher, dramaturge, and curator based in Berlin
Maria Mitsopoulou aka Maria F. Dolores, visual artist and performer, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)
Anna Apostolelli, activist, currently a member of Beaver, a women’s co-op café in Athens, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)
Tina Voreadi, visual artist and educator, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)

#32. Queer Indie Gig Exercise of FreedomHTH Green to Blue Shock Treatment
Prasini Lesvia, musician

#33. DJ set
Gizem Oruç, musician

#34. The Epic of Eleftheria
Irena Haiduk, artist and Eirini Vakalopoulou, writer and poet



General dramaturgy for the Exercises of Freedom: Prodromos Tsinikoris, artistic co-director of Experimental Stage -1 of the National Theatre, Athens.


Image: Athens Municipality Arts Center Parko Eleftherias
DEMOS, Andreas Angelidakis, installation, 2016, dimensions variable. Photo: Stathis Mamalakis



PUBLIC PROGRAMSPosted on 06.09.2016
Read more →

The Delicate Mix between Technology, Politics and Aesthetics

Interview with Daniel G. Andújar

Geert Lovink

April 26, 2016
interview 5.029 words

In April 2015 I had the honour to receive a private tour by the Spanish artist Daniel G. Andújar of his solo show, Operating System, at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Museum in Madrid.1 I know Daniel from the net.art days of 1996–1997 when he was running Technologies To The People® (TTTP) (1996), a work shared in Operating System. All these months later, as the works in the show stayed with me, I decided to contact Daniel and request an e-mail interview with him. What I appreciate in his work is the natural way in which his ‘new media arts’ background is woven into the broader visual arts context of a large museum such as Reina Sofía. The show brought together the real thing and its virtual double – as if the two have never been at odds. Operating System offered a mix of many things, such as playful net.art, a dark, hacker space installation, journalism investigating real estate projects (from the pre-2008 boom years), a colourful room filled with manipulated versions of political celebrity posters and an art historical investigation into Pablo Picasso. The exhibition seemed to find the ‘tactical’ equilibrium so many people have thrived on and thirsted for. When we have all moved on to become post-digital, where ‘analogue is the new digital,’ then why should we continue to marginalize those who experiment with the ‘new material’ in an evermore ironic fashion? It is time for the Great Synthesis. The historical compromise is there. Everyone prepares for the first post-digital Venice Biennale in 2017. Let’s enjoy the delicate mix between technology, politics and aesthetics in such a way that none of the three dominate, and let Andújar be our guide.

Read more →

Zones of Conflict HeK (House of Electronic Arts Basel)

duration: 17.09.2015 – 15.11.2015

In his works, Spanish artist Daniel G. Andújar deals with political and social issues and reflects on the relationship between reality and its representation in digital worlds. He starts off with collections of various found media that he uses for his video and Internet projects, as well as arrangements of objects, prints and photographs.

Key themes are the power structures in dominant, hierarchical social systems and the role of technology as an instrument of state control. Andújar uses the representation strategies of media in an ironic and critical manner, asking whether information and communication technologies truly uphold their stated commitment to democratic and egalitarian values. He thus points out the discrepancy between the utopian idea of the Internet as a democratic space, and its actual capabilities and limitations. Andújar thus keeps returning to subversive tactics of occupation and civil disobedience – tactics that use social networks and the Internet to reframe the concept of freedom.

With “Konfliktzonen / Zones of Conflict“ the HeK (House of Electronic Arts Basel) presents the artist’s first solo exhibition in Switzerland. The exhibition includes works created between 1998 and 2015 on themes related to conflicts, protest movements and geo-political crises. All invite the visitor to take a critical look at today’s communication media and technologies.

Read more →



Prophetia comprises works by twenty-five artists who have followed and addressed the formation of the European Community. The point of departure for the exhibition is a video by the Albanian artist Anri Sala, dating from 2002, that portrays the moment when the dream of Europe was still intact in some of the countries aspiring to enter the European Union. All the other works on exhibit are more recent and reflect the current sense of uncertainty concerning the European project.

The diverse origins of the artists featured in the show lead to a confluence of very different points of view and sensibilities. As a whole, the Prophetia exhibition invites us to reflect upon the history and evolution of the European Union, with a special emphasis on the latest developments.

Prophetia is structured around three concepts that are closely linked to the philosophical and ideological foundations of Europe: rape, correspondence and reciprocity, and responsibility. These three concepts also provide the backbone for the exhibition catalogue, which includes essays by Bojana Kunst, Ingrid Guardiola, Cécile Bourne Farrell, José Luis Corazón, Srecko Horvat, and Piedad Solans.

The Prophetia project has been curated by Imma Prieto.

Read more →


02 FEBRUARY 2015

The first solo exhibition of the year at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is “ Operating System”, by Daniel García Andújar. A large selection of earlier works is being shown alongside new creations that continue to explore the link between new technologies and society, intervening between the public and the private. We talk with an artist who considers his work to be more collective than individual.

Your exhibition could also have been called “Inoperative system”.

In fact I’m into these analogies, very black or white. I make a lot of references, as happened in “Postcapital”, where I reduced language to colours, something symbolic but that is still there as part of the artistic language. In the artist’s toolbox there are all the languages used during the history of art, it would be absurd not to use them. I make an almost reductive use in this type of analogy, in this case of red, white and black. I make these analogies, as in operating system, in order to establish parallels with the political system. In line with the language of hacking, there is an endeavour to seek out the failures of the system, through the bug, and once on the inside to improve or repair it; this search is for a more democratic system, for a much more horizontal system.

Through the hole opened up by the bug enters exploit, the programme that can be damaging or beneficial.

I work with this idea, in fact I always explain the paradox of the knife: If we film a scene with a close up, a certain type of lighting, use certain dramatic recourses of film and a knife appears, we think one thing. But if later a hand and Ferran Adrià appear, we’ll be talking about cooking. Depending on how we use them, tools have one result or another. I’m in favour of a greater transparency and emancipation, and that what be criminalized be a bad use of this information. But they are criminalising or supervising us a priori, and don’t let us function as an emancipated society.

You mentioned there are errors in the system. Do you think the way to solve them is through the participation of society?

Undoubtedly. When I began to develop these operating systems and software, I talked about an emancipated citizen in this sense. If instead of society as a shapeless mass we have individuals who are trained, with a good stock of educational and pedagogical culture, we’d have a better society. Here I draw a parallel with the Spanish empire of Philip II, when thanks to the printing press, the word, in this case of God, the Bible, begins to be disseminated. There is a wider access to certain information and its interpretation. It’s there the developments began that led to the French Revolution, that first great emancipation of the bourgeoisie. I make an analogy with this huge divide that is currently forming, that ultimately is like a new social hierarchy, what in the 90’s was called info-rich and info-poor. The digital divide is growing increasingly wider, adding to a divide that was already there.

Read more →

Daniel G. Andújar. Sistema operativo

Desde el espacio público, utilizando la ciudad como principal referente, y con la red como territorio, Daniel G. Andújar construye un discurso cultural a través de los medios digitales y de las tecnologías, cuestionando, revisando y reflexionando, mediante la ironía y la utilización de estrategias de presentación de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación, las promesas democráticas e igualitarias de estos medios, criticando al tiempo la voluntad de control que esconden detrás de su aparente transparencia.

From public space, using the city as the main point of reference and the territory of the Internet, Daniel G. Andújar builds a cultural discourse through digital media and technologies. Using irony and strategies to present new media technologies, he questions, reviews and reflects on the democratic and egalitarian promises of this media, whilst also criticising the will to control concealed behind its apparent transparency.

Read more →